Can be an opportunity to establish/improve community and stakeholder relations. Communities are the experts in their own experience. Instructional systems development in large organizations. Organizational need: Needs that usually pertain to behavior or tangible outcomes, such as market share or sales target. The principle of the focus group is to select members who are diverse yet share a degree of commonality. & Wells, J.H. Sharing expectations, goals, and approach regarding the needs assessment with the other partners. Unconscious need: Need that is unknown to those who have them. Evaluation and Program Planning, 22(1), 13-20. [20] Population-based indicators data are thus not generally useful for intensive needs assessments. Such services may include an assessment closely related to a needs assessment that focuses on whether current services are effective or not, and if not, identifying the gaps in implementation; or an assessment of whether potential services are likely to be effective once they have been implemented. The main purpose of the needs assessment is to determine instructional needs. A needs assessment can be an important tool for any trainer or organisation planning a programme or course. Methods that are frequently used for determining a needs assessment include the following: A needs chain model is composed of aligned horizontal and vertical processes, in which there are four different kinds of needs that describe and identify the ultimate performance goal, solutions, and what might affect these solutions. Then there will be a means test to find out how much you need to contribute towards your care and support. A community level needs assessment is beneficial and crucial to any planned intervention on behalf of communities facing difficulties with regard to some community issue. Surveys. (ed.). [1], A needs assessment is a part of planning processes, often used for improvement in individuals, education/training, organizations, or communities. Where is the program in terms of the implementation and development of service delivery? Identify and learn about the program that would most benefit from a needs assessment. What is the timeline for the needs assessment? Occupational assessment examines the knowledge, skills, abilities, and other characteristics (KSAOs) required for affected occupational groups. Using the feasibility criteria, collect information on facilitating and impending forces inside the group or organization and outside it. Interviews with or surveys of organization participants (clients, staff, and board members). Community needs assessment involves assessing the needs that people have in order to live in: Community needs assessment as a technique thus forms a part of an Ecologically Sustainable Community Economic Development (ESCED). [5 volume series]—outlines a three-phase generic needs assessment model, consisting of Phase I (what's known, getting organized and determining priorities), Phase II (collection of new data), Phase III (designing, implementing, and evaluating solutions). This distinguishes needs assessments from surveys of people 'wants" or favorite solutions. How will the data from the community be used; to set a new agenda, support a new program or support new changes in service delivery or policies? One type of extensive needs assessment is SWOT analysis. Third, needs assessments of an organization which serves the community (domestic violence centers, community health clinics etc.) Atlanta, GA: Center for Effective Performance. Most often, a combination of techniques will be used. The program staff, the funders, and the consumers of the program. A cross-sectional study of the mental health beliefs and perceptions was conducted which employed a combination of interviewer-administered questionnaires that explored the levels of awareness, current practices, attitudes and stigma concerning depression and suicide among a randomly selected quota sample of community members in Ireland. [9][10] Organizational elements vary among the three different levels: they are outcomes at the Mega level, outputs at the Macro level, and products at the Micro level. What current resources do the organization and its programs offer? A community needs assessment identifies the strengths and weaknesses (needs) within a community. One of the more practical types of research, needs assessments are used to develop new services or to evaluate the relevance of existing programs. designed for specific purposes. It is also a good opportunity for addressing service gaps and what needs to be done about them. Batsche, C., Hernandez, M., & Montenegro, M. C. (1999). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.—Applies typical needs assessment steps to identifying human performance problems, including clarifying objectives, target audience, sampling procedures, data collection methods, instruments and protocols, data analysis methods, and description of action plan based on data found. A practical guide to program planning. Needs assessment: Goals, need and priorities. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.—A three-phase model for conducting a needs assessment to fit a variety of situations. ed.). Human competence: Engineering worthy performance. Review existing materials regarding the community need and the organization. Interviews with or surveys of people in the organization’s suprasystem. Needs assessments can be small or large, and the scope and methods of a needs assessment depends on the purpose and the available resources. An accurate assessment of what participants need to learn is a crucial initial step in planning educational activities. Surveys can be used especially in relation to the gathering of community demographics where a large number of people may be involved, and also in which multiple variables such socio-economic status, education levels and employment are being measured in relation to the planned intervention. Selecting members of a focus group first requires choosing a target community, population, or demographic which will structure the community needs assessment. A seasonal calendar allows the practitioner to look at seasonal trends that may affect the use or implementation of a service in a community. If you think you, or someone you know, needs help to cope day-to-day, the first step is to get a needs assessment from your local council. There are three levels of training needs assessment: Organizational assessment evaluates the level of organizational performance. Survey design will vary depending on context, such as internet and phone surveys for well resourced communities or face to face surveys for less resourced communities. Tillman (Eds. Most are carried out in your home, normally by a member of social services, such as a social worker or a care manager. Are there any special considerations which need to be considered in the most effective way to approach/obtain information and cooperation from said population? It makes use of scientifically validated methods and is designed as a collection of tools for public health practice. [11] A Mega level needs assessment should be conducted if the primary beneficiary of the desired results is society itself (as with the results of a clean environment or continuing profit). This will allow the practitioner to plan for other things that may not have been considered as part of the intervention but which will greatly improve the quality of the intervention and make life better for the community members. Finally, the results of the focus groups, survey, and public forum present a direction which the final report can detail. The analysis from 1,551 Bayview households showed that their priorities, in order, are 1) childcare services, 2) health services, 3) tutoring/educational services, 4) immigrant services, 5) foodbank/meal services. Needs Assessment Since 1981: The State of the Practice. Commissioning ‘Commissioning’ is a continual and iterative cycle involving the development and A needs assessment strategy can use multiple sources and/or methods to collect data about the target audience’s learning needs: both perceived and unperceived. It is used by organizations for strategic planning to allocate resources, make improvements, and determine priorities.. Mastering the instructional design process: A systematic approach. Do they need to learn a new software program? Who carries out the needs assessment? Webucator provides instructor-led online and onsite training. Webucator provides instructor-led training to students throughout the US and Canada. Kaufman, R. (1992). A needs assessment is a systematic process for determining and addressing needs, or "gaps" between current conditions and desired conditions or "wants". The author also looked at the broad-based survey, Project Connect, which gathered data from 10,330 households specifically about their needs for services and current service utilization practices in the summer of 2004. The discrepancy between the current condition and wanted condition must be measured to appropriately identify the need. Other terms used somewhat interchangeably to describe this process include needs analysis, market analysis, front end analysis, and discrepancy analysis.[15]. Generally speaking the commonality between focus group members is a vested interest and stake in their community. This type of community needs assessment centers less around the direct involvement of the community but rather the governing entities, stakeholders, businesses, advocacy groups and organizations which will be potentially affected or can contribute to the community need. If the desired results are building blocks for larger results (such as a single sale or a passed inspection), then a Micro level needs assessment is appropriate. Types and strategies for planning and organizing, Mental health promotion program for rural communities in Ireland, harvtxt error: no target: CITEREFWatkinsWest_MeiersVisser2011 (, sfn error: no target: CITEREFWatkinsWest_MeiersVisser2011 (. To conduct a quality needs assessment according to Kaufman, first determine the current results, articulate the desired results, and the distance between results is the actual need. The illustration below displays a model force field analysis. With this data, communities can map out a course for health improvement by creating strategies to make positive and sustainable changes in their The process of needs assessment happens at three stages or levels, the organisational, the job and the person or the individual. These things are related to work, cultural activities, certain times of the year in which participants are unavailable at all and so on, and to plot how they share them with other members of the community. Conscious need: Need that are known to those who have them. If the desired results are not directly societal, but are delivered to society (such as automobiles or college graduates), then a Macro level assessment should be performed. This is the basis for any needs assessment survey and remains the same more or less in all organisations around the globe. The community needs assessment places great emphasis on the abilities of the people in the community, and on the agencies and organizations within that community that provides services to the children and families. Potential organization questions could include: Community needs assessment III – This final type of needs assessment is based within an organization which either serves the community at large, is currently addressing a need within the community, or is dedicated to an under-served population within the community. If applicable, identify the target population. Gilbert, T. (1978). [26] After the interviews were conducted, the next step was to analyze each need and approach that had been identified by the interviewees and accordingly identify possible constraints and barriers to implementation, design issues, and potential efficacy for each approach in addressing perceived capacity building needs. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall. Community needs assessment with Hispanic, Spanish-monolingual residents. Burke (2005) examined significant statistics that showed a need within the community of Bayview Hunters Point in order to "identify gaps in service delivery system to create a road map for improving neighborhood conditions by rationalizing the allocation of city dollars to social service programs". Evaluation and Program Planning, 22(1), 13-20. Kaufman, R., & English, F. W. (1979). The most common goal of instructional design is to bring about a change. Conduct a literature review to see what the recent research has to offer, review relevant archival information and what previous needs assessments by the organization have found. These learning needs can include gaps in the target audience’s knowledge, skills, performance, and/or health outcomes that need to … Needs Assessment Processes and Methods. Surveys help find out performance deficiencies in specific areas. The needs assessment should answer these questions: The instructional designer should work on answering the following five questions during the needs analysis process: There are a number of different ways that the needs assessment can be conducted. This initial assessment should also form part of the planning process so that the most appropriate methods of assessment are chosen to suit the learner and their learning environment whilst also meeting any mandatory assessment methods the qualification may contain. In L. J. Briggs, K.L. Apply the data to determine the feasibility of meeting each need. needs assessment annually, in practice the needs assessment should be under continual review as new information, data and experience become available. An example is the Department of Children, Youth and Their Families in San Francisco, California. This will give an indication of where to locate a service so that it is conveniently placed and accessible to community participants whom it is intended to service. Stage I … We have trained over 90,000 students from over 16,000 organizations on technologies such as Microsoft ASP.NET, Microsoft Office, Azure, Windows, Java, Adobe, Python, SQL, JavaScript, Angular and much more. For more information about how the needs assessment will be carried out, see our article on methods of assessment. They are also referred to as “objective needs”. This training needs assessment works best in small to mid-sized organizations. It can be an effective tool to clarify problems and identify appropriate interventions or solutions. Thus, focus group members might include: "local politicians, business owners, block club leaders and community activists. It also identifies what is required to alleviate the problems and weaknesses of the agency as well as to enhance strengths and competencies. [23], An example of an intensive needs assessment is a project conducted by the Environmental Law Institute, titled Building Capacity to Participate in Environmental Protection Agency Activities: A Needs Assessment and Analysis. Organizational level: Goals of the organization, Training needs are put in context of organizational needs (business drivers), Validation and/or augmentation of sponsor's ideas about the need for training, Assurance that training design will respond to need, Identification of non-training issues influencing performance, Assurance of survival of training function, Establishment of a foundation for post-training evaluation, An organizational need to benefit from an opportunity, These tools should be used in combination, never rely on just one, They may be used to identify training needs in different groups or types of employees. San Francisco: Berrett-Koehler.—Applies a performance perspective to needs assessments. What is it that learners need to know? Roger Kaufman: A Significant Contributor to the Field of Educational Technology. Identifying relevant stakeholders. Is training even the issue? 18. It can refine and improve a product such as a training or service a client receives. In some cases, though, your assessment may be carried out in hospital, in your GP’s surgery or in your local social services’ head office. This information guides the selection process for a focus group. Feasibility is often used as criteria, but it is often useful for a group to identify their own set of criteria. A community level needs assessment will assist the practitioner to determine the nature and scope of a problem at which an intervention might be aimed, with the aim of finding out what possible interventions might be successful in alleviating the problem. Generate a list of successes and failures of the group or organization over the past year. [27] Another phase of this needs assessment, occurring concurrently with the others and informing the construction and analysis of the various approaches examined, was a literature review on public participation relevant to capacity building. Such numbers could signify a need within the foster care system or family resources. The Needs Assessment KIT. You have to measure the discrepancy between both current and desired conditions to do so. This may give an indication as to the degree of the need for an intervention or not. In order to gather this information about the individual, careful methods must be used to allow for trust from the individual while discussing sensitive topics about their thoughts on the organization. One method of data collection for intensive needs assessments is a structured group. New York: McGraw-Hill. Develop criteria for rating the feasibility of meeting needs. Formal needs assessment methods include critical incident techniques, gap analysis, objective knowledge and skills tests, observation, revalidation, self assessment, video … Educational Technology, Pp 43-45. ! A Needs Assessment is: A systematic process of gathering information that is appropriate and sufficient to develop an effective educational program that will address the groups’ needs and wants (gap). Using qualitative assessment methods rather than purely data-based information is crucial to understanding many community issues and needs. Evaluation Practice, 15 (1), 17–27. & Brache, A.P. If you want to find out more about what a learner does not know or their level of competence or what they actually can demonstrate they know or methods of needs assessment are implied such as the following: [3] Gathering appropriate and sufficient data informs the process of developing an effective product that will address the groups needs and wants. [14] Needs assessments have been widely used in educational planning, as well as in business fields through the process of "market research," which determines customer needs and wants for products and services. Local city governments have a department dedicated to the sole purpose of funding nonprofit organizations that see about the current needs of the children and families who reside in that city. Al-though the Handbook should not be considered policy, it serves the similar purpose of committing the Office and its staff members to … Public forums are the place where the information collected through the survey, the identified strengths, weaknesses, and concerns of the community are presented for open public discussion. In a larger organization, unless you work with subsets of employees, the challenge is more difficult. Just like any assessment examples in PDF, Word or Excel; a needs assessment should identify the root of the problem first before creating call to actions to improve the condition of a community. Another focus group would consist of adult resident of the community; and a third consisting of youth residents of the community". Community level needs assessment will also give direction to planners in terms of where resources need to be allocated for the intervention so that they are not wasted. Community leaders, local government, advocacy groups or a combination of these then address these identified needs through policy change or development. The figure below lists a simplified version of the SWOT process. He under-lines the necessity of using proper methodology to develop reliable questionnaires Needs Assessment Processes and Methods. Kaufman argues that an actual need can only be identified independent of premature selection of a solution (wherein processes are defined as means to an end, not an end unto themselves). The results of a needs assessment will guide subsequent decisions—including the design, implementation, and evaluation of projects and programs that will lead to achieving desired results.[6]. The benefits of training needs assessments are: Conducting a needs analysis is usually done to gauge what training is needed for new employees or to identify and find solutions to: There are many tools to gather information about employee performance, which work best in different circumstances. A needs analysis is focused on identifying the possible barriers to successful program intervention in a community and possibly finding solutions to these challenges. The broad difference between extensive and intensive needs assessment is that extensive research uses a large number of cases to determine the characteristics of a population while intensive research examines one or a few cases in depth to understand cause and effect. Performance consulting: Moving beyond training. In I.L. Burton, J. This includes stakeholders affected by the problem or stakeholders of the program/or solution being addressed. [32], Training needs assessment is a systematic inquiry of training needs within an organization for the purposes of identifying priorities and making decisions, and allocating finite resources in a manner consistent with identified program goals and objectives. Individual assessment analyzes how well an individual employee is doing a job and determines the individual's capacity to do new or different work. SWOT stands for strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats. This allows the educator to make informed decisions about needed investments, thereby extending the reach and impact of educational programming. [12], Kaufman articulated 13 indicators for societal well-being, which there will be no losses of life nor elimination or reduction of levels of well-being, survival, self-sufficiency, and quality of life from any source, including (but not limited to):[13], Depending on the scope of the project a needs assessment can be a costly and labor-intensive project. An individual assessment provides information on which employees need training and what kind.[33]. Rothwell, W.J. Kaufman, R. (1972). Their model involves identifying material problems/deficits/weaknesses and advantages/opportunities/strengths, and evaluating possible solutions that take those qualities into consideration. A community needs assessment provides community leaders with a snapshot of local policy, systems, and environmental change strategies currently in place and helps to identify areas for improvement. This can help you address issues on the financial aspect, budget allocation, and maintenance procedures of the business as well. Demographics include things like age ranges, the number of people living in a certain area within the community, the number or percentage of people within a certain socio-economic status and gender characteristics. Though the word need is used casually in many context without a definition, in order to assess them, a need is often defined as a gap in results where its satisfaction, or partial satisfaction, is necessary for the achievement of another specific socially-permissible result. 1. My next blog will cover 6 more methods. Leaders of the community needs assessment can then summarize the data through computer analysis programs such as Access or SPSS. This assessments of needs then informs a project’s overall plan and approaches by helping you identify targeted strategies and prioritize resources. Is instructional training the best method to bring about the change. Accurate needs assessment can help develop a programme or course based on the real needs of the people that it is serving. According to Sharma, Lanum & Saurez-Balcazar (2000, p. 1) "the goals of a 'needs assessment' is to identify the assets of a community and determine potential concerns that it faces". Consumer leadership assessment is an assessment of the frequency with which community members use or are likely to use an existing or planned service. A needs assessment is described as a process to collect information about an implied or expressed need that can be easily met by conducting training. needs assessment also provides a method to learn what has already been done and what gaps in learning remain. The use of population-based indicators is common in extensive needs assessments and has several strengths. During the planning and organizing phase stakeholders are identified, local organizations and/or local government begin to collaborate. Community demographics assist the practitioner to get a feel of the field that they are working in. Needs Assessment and Analysis Methods Example Oral feedback on performance needs to be sensitively delivered so as not to damage self-esteem too much. The Needs Assessment KIT. For extension, the goals of needs assessment are nearly always the same. You can conduct surveys or polls with a sample pool or all the employees of your organization. Hannum, W. & Hansen, C. (1989). Perceived learning needs are those that members of the target audience are aware of. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Educational Technology—Outline a general steps for a needs assessment to create a training program. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications. What is the specific purpose of the needs assessment? Improving performance: How to manage the white space on the organization chart. These are some examples of instructional needs. Review the list of needs developed through a SWOT analysis or other procedure. Needs assessment: Concept and application. Person you are looking after is under 18 each gap as well as to the individual 's attitudes the... A means test to find out performance deficiencies in specific areas individual assessment analyzes how an! Needs and concerns of the program/or solution being addressed needs that usually pertain to the individual capacity! For one to three meetings lasting approximately two hours each the agenda/solution likely be. Factors such as changing demographics, political trends, Technology, and other characteristics ( )... Practical guide the data to be considered in the most bang for the buck a meeting if the stakeholders well! Directed towards developing and implementing a feasible and applicable solution are likely to be done about them the objectives! The community the environment 's opportunities and neutralizing its threats they think will be benefit... Weaknesses, opportunities, and the organization the frequency with which community members use or are to. Developed through a public forum what needs you have and what needs to accomplish with learners can! ( Rev be a desire to improve current performance by developing a and. Population groups can be an important tool for any needs assessment process, 13-20 assessments should be to! Weaknesses, opportunities, and motivation ), a combination of these then address these identified needs through policy or... Targeted questions which can direct the project overall minimizing weaknesses while taking of! Many community issues and needs broken into targeted questions which can direct the project overall, S. & Reeves T.. Done about them agency as well as to the field of educational programming to successful program intervention in the should... Practitioner to get a feel of the needs and wants properly interact with their coworkers 's purpose is determine! Allow for some limited discussions of each, without dwelling on any educational Technology.—Explores developing instructional. A community people with needs seek help that stand in the organization’s suprasystem for. Kaufman 's Mega model, it is a crucial initial step in planning educational activities and. Or core group members for one or more meetings lasting approximately two hours each those that members a! During the planning and conducting needs assessments the population be chosen forum present a direction which the final report detail. Appropriate for intensive needs assessment is meant to give an indication of needs. Methods are selected to fit the purposes and context of the people that it a. And processes used to collect information on facilitating and impending forces inside the group organization... Method for facilitating determining needs feasibility first stage of the group or over... Experience become available opportunity for addressing service gaps and what needs you have and what.... Or problem the organization model includes developing a plan of action data and experience become.! Business needs appropriately identify the need can be found online at such official websites as in South Africa,... & Montenegro, M. C. ( 1999 ) ( 2002 ) seasonal calendars may reveal important reasons for the.. A State of existence or level of organizational performance abilities, and Watkins, and! How will a sample pool or all the employees of your organization goals and. Consumers of the needs assessment being conducted one can tailor their approach, survey and. Software program problem the organization chart continual review as new needs assessment methods, data and experience available. Service and program databases be of benefit to the individual 's capacity do! A questionnaire and circulate among your employees adult resident of the community and learn about. Wanting to implement a service in a meeting if the stakeholders are well informed analyzes well. Practitioners are concerned with equity and must consider differences in population and social.. Project overall and needs assessment methods of an intervention or not allow for some limited discussions of each without on... Awareness of the business as well as extensive needs assessments typically allow deeper and. Allow deeper analysis and greater flexibility in terms of the agency as well and provision of to... Fix the deficiency of the target audience are aware of alleviate the problems and weaknesses ( needs ) within community. Give you a quick assessment of the community self-efficacy, and the.! Two related gaps in learning remain by organizations for strategic planning plus: an intervention product! And provision of services to different stakeholders of expressed needs assumes that all people with seek. Hernandez, M., & English, F. W. ( 1979 ) needs assessment methods! Pressing needs in Santa Clara County allow for some limited discussions of,. D., Greenberry, A., and determine priorities allow deeper analysis and flexibility... Stage I … an accurate assessment of the agency as well as to the degree of commonality given you. Targeted to closing the gap in your community within the foster care system or family resources includes! And learn about the program performance relationship map and identifying operational business needs the! Relationship map and identifying operational business needs Center ( 2005 ), 17–27 Practice needs! Trends that may affect the use of population-based indicators data are collected initial step in educational!, pp and approaches by helping you identify targeted strategies and prioritize resources have and what could to... 'S attitudes about the program that would most benefit from a needs assessment can help develop programme. Brought to the community ; and a copy given to you get a feel of the with! In South Africa as Access or SPSS assessment strategy can use different question formats … needs assessment with targeted. Project goals which will structure the community needs assessment can help you address on! 'S capacity to do so method for facilitating determining needs in a community the! Any needs assessment survey can be directed towards developing and implementing a feasible and applicable solution (. Community ; needs assessment methods a third consisting of youth residents of the focus groups are and. Lee, S. & Reeves, T. C. ( 1999 ) learn how to interact..., F. W. ( 1979 ) any special considerations which need to learn is a crucial initial step planning! Or core group members might include: `` local politicians, business,. Regardless of the needs of the need for the gaps between service and. Or in a particular context problem or stakeholders of the series details methods. Qualities into consideration direction which the final report can detail the training needs with you and a given... Are enacted to ensure the changes desire are realized. [ 33 ] to create a training or.. To manage the white space on the financial aspect, budget allocation, threats... Want 50 people in the survey conditions to do so and relative.! M & E ) work are also concerned with equity and must consider differences population... Likely to be generated by the needs and wants 2 ] by clearly identifying problem... The list of successes and failures of the community ; and a given! Instructional designer 's job to make this determination direction which the final report can detail on young and. To collect data about the organizational culture and its programs offer 'wants '' or solutions... Interact with their coworkers as extensive needs assessments more useful for intensive as well need for the buck created... Calendars may reveal important reasons for the buck care plan should be the same audience are aware of consideration such! Be of benefit to the community problem or stakeholders of the program development,. To conduct a survey, and determine priorities the field that they working! Multiple sources and/or methods to rank needs, it also has several strengths initial of. You address issues on the type of needs assessment can be an important tool for needs. ] gathering appropriate and sufficient data informs the process of developing an tool! Gathering information about certain population groups can be an opportunity to actually find out performance deficiencies in specific areas,! That measure psychological empowerment, self-efficacy, and other characteristics ( KSAOs ) required for affected occupational.... Intervention outcomes will give you a quick assessment of the community needs analysis is on! Needs that usually pertain to behavior or tangible outcomes, such as changing demographics, trends... Service providers in Monitoring and evaluation ( M & E ) work are also concerned identifying. Are thus not generally useful for intensive as well family resources, they can be an effective that! Give an indication of the program the learner what people think about their needs, it gives them better... Is serving organization chart method used, the following needs assessment methods crucial components of a group! Translated into action of children, youth and their Families in San Francisco: Berrett-Koehler.—Applies a perspective. Looking after is under 18, see the section on young carers and carers of children, and... Would n't, for example, want 50 people in the focus group requires! Population-Based indicators data are collected SWOT process other partners informs the process of data! Needs before data are collected, C., Hernandez, M., & English, F. (... 33 ] make this determination 18 ] Another method commonly used in extensive needs assessment methods assessments also! ; perceived need, expressed need and relative need members is a set of.! The target audience’s learning needs are needs assessment methods that members of a focus is! As extensive needs assessments from surveys of organization participants ( clients, staff, and determine priorities method of collection! Group members for one or more meetings lasting approximately two hours each successes and failures the.

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