He used a dining table and filed a set of books at the middle of the table. Like the backspin stroke, however, the axis of spin remains roughly perpendicular to the trajectory of the ball thus allowing for the Magnus effect to dictate the subsequent curvature. This stroke is sometimes referred to as a "hook". The player, in a half-turn stance, swings downward while "brushing" or grazing the lower half of the ball with an open racket face (the top of the blade tipped away from the net). The opponent that has been warned by the umpire commits a second offense in the same individual match or team match. Table Tennis likely began as a social hobby in England toward the end of the 1800's. Articles from Britannica Encyclopedias for elementary and high school students. [69] In 2014, Singapore Table Tennis Association's president Lee Bee Wah quit over this issue;[70] however, her successor Ellen Lee has basically continued on this path. Like most other sports, table tennis had humble beginnings as a “parlor game,” open to anyone with access to a table, paddle, and ball. To help a player distinguish between the rubber used by his opposing player, international rules specify that one side must be red while the other side must be black. By flipping the racket in play, different types of returns are possible. Table Tennis (Ping Pong) | History, Skills & Equipment For Playing. [15], In the 1950s, paddles that used a rubber sheet combined with an underlying sponge layer changed the game dramatically,[1] introducing greater spin and speed. As this system is not standard across manufacturers, the only way a ball may be used in official competition is upon ITTF approval[24] (the ITTF approval can be seen printed on the ball). It involves the feet being spaced wider than shoulder width and a partial crouch being adopted; the crouch is an efficient posture for moving quickly from and also preloads the muscles enabling a more dynamic movement. A Let is a rally of which the result is not scored, and is called in the following circumstances:[39]. [84], On many continents, there is a governing body responsible for table tennis on that continent. Whether you're young or old, able-bodied or disabled, everyone can enjoy playing table tennis at some level. For example, if the order of play is A→X→B→Y at beginning of the first game, the order begins with X→A→Y→B or Y→B→X→A in the second game depending on either X or Y being chosen as the first server of the game. Lob is used less frequently by professional players. The wooden portion of the racket, often referred to as the "blade", commonly features anywhere between one and seven plies of wood, though cork, glass fiber, carbon fiber, aluminum fiber, and Kevlar are sometimes used. The object of a defensive chop is to match the topspin of the opponent's shot with backspin. Note that the hand that is holding the racket counts as part of the racket and that making a good return off one's hand or fingers is allowed. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. In those early days, the scoring system was the same as in lawn tennis. Table Tennis emerged in England in the early 20th century with its trademark name; Ping-Pong. Hardbat table tennis uses rackets with short outward "pips" and no sponge, resulting in decreased speeds and reduced spin. Then World No 1 table tennis professional Vladimir Samsonov threatened to pull out of the World Cup, which was scheduled to debut the new regulation ball on October 12, 2000. The original Pong consisted of two paddles that players used to volley a small ball back and…. Watch as Jean-Michel Saive (BEL) plays against good friend Chuang Chih-Yuan (TPE) Tai-Ben International. This stroke is the predominant technique used in professional competition because it gives the opponent less time to respond. The history of table tennis began in England in the nineteenth century, this being a way to play tennis in an enclosed space. In order to attack a push, a player must usually loop (if the push is long) or flip (if the push is short) the ball back over the net. If the sequence of serving and receiving is out of turn or the ends are not changed, points scored in the wrong situation are still calculated and the game shall be resumed with the order at the score that has been reached. For example, a white ball is easier to see on a green or blue table than it is on a grey table. In the last possible game of a match, for example the seventh game in a best of seven matches, players change ends when the first player scores five points, regardless of whose turn it is to serve. Kenta Matsudaira is known for primarily using counter-hit for offense. Play is fast and demands quick reactions. An official hall of fame exists at the ITTF Museum. If the service is "good", then the receiver must make a "good" return by hitting the ball back before it bounces a second time on receiver's side of the table so that the ball passes the net and touches the opponent's court, either directly or after touching the net assembly. This configuration is sometimes referred to as "traditional penhold" and is more commonly found in square-headed racket styles. The ITTF also changed the rules on service to prevent a player from hiding the ball during service, in order to increase the average length of rallies and to reduce the server's advantage, effective in 2002. [14] On the other hand, the popularity of the sport waned in 1930s Soviet Union, partly because of the promotion of team and military sports, and partly because of a theory that the game had adverse health effects. Except for the initial serve, the rules are generally as follows: players must allow a ball played toward them to bounce one time on their side of the table, and must return it so that it bounces on the opposite side at least once. [48] Chinese penholders favour a round racket head, for a more over-the-table style of play. Smash is used more often with penhold grip. ", "Lee Bee Wah quits because of foreign talent issues", "Table tennis: STTA seeks Singapore passport for Zeng", "Eligibility regulations in place effective from 3rdMay 2018–practical implementation", "Liu Guoliang needs to prove he is good as coach", "Jan-Ove Waldner's results of tournaments", Pan-American Para Table Tennis Championships, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Table_tennis&oldid=995766985, Wikipedia articles incorporating a citation from the 1911 Encyclopaedia Britannica with Wikisource reference, Wikipedia indefinitely move-protected pages, Wikipedia indefinitely semi-protected pages, Articles with unsourced statements from November 2010, All Wikipedia articles needing clarification, Wikipedia articles needing clarification from September 2017, Articles with unsourced statements from October 2020, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. [26][27] The table or playing surface is uniformly dark coloured and matte, divided into two halves by a net at 15.25 cm (6.0 in) in height. The player, standing in a square-on position, swings downward while "brushing" or grazing the lower half of the ball with an open racket face (the top of the blade tipped away from the net). All About Table Tennis. A flip is not a single stroke and can resemble either a loop drive or a loop in its characteristics. Led by representatives of Germany, Hungary, and England, the Fédération Internationale de Tennis de Table (International Table Tennis Federation) was founded in 1926, the founding members being England, Sweden, Hungary, India, Denmark, Germany, Czechoslovakia, Austria, and Wales. A block is executed by simply placing the racket in front of the ball right after the ball bounces; thus, the ball rebounds back toward the opponent with nearly as much energy as it came in with. Due to the initial lift of the ball, there is a limit on how much speed with which one can hit the ball without missing the opponent's side of the table. [49] Though it is sometimes referred to as the "tennis" or "Western" grip, it bears no relation to the Western tennis grip, which was popularized on the West Coast of the United States in which the racket is rotated 90°, and played with the wrist turned so that on impact the knuckles face the target. Philippine Table Tennis Federation, Inc.(PTTFI) replaced TATAP, which was later certified as a regular member of POC and the recognise … The first world championships were held in London in 1926, and from then until 1939 the game was dominated by players from central Europe, the men’s team event being won nine times by Hungary and twice by Czechoslovakia. World table tennis champion, men's singles, 1930, 1932–35; men's doubles, 1929–35; mixed doubles, 1932, 1935. The serve is made from behind the end of the table, the server tossing the ball upward from the palm of the free hand and striking it as it descends so that it first bounces on the server’s own court and then, passing over the net, bounces on the opponent’s court. In 2016, the Philippines Olympic Committee(POC) defunct TATAP as member of the National Sports Association(NSA). [38] Thereafter, the server and receiver must alternately make a return until the rally is over. [4] Table tennis has been an Olympic sport since 1988,[5] with several event categories. Singles and doubles are both played in international competition, including the Olympic Games since 1988 and the Commonwealth Games since 2002. The history of table tennis is coloured by a great many champions, including the Austro-Briton Richard Bergmann, Franco-Polish player Aloizy Ehrilich and the Romanian Angelica Rozeanu. Table-Tennis-History,playfield Equipments,Rules and Regulations,fundamental skills,Terminology History of the Game: This sports has its origin in Victorian England.It is a fast racket game played with light ball on the smallest game surface known as ‘table’. History of table tennis says during winter all the lawn tennis players thought to bring the game indoor for more comfort so to enjoy it with ease and relax. Table tennis, also called (trademark) Ping-Pong, ball game similar in principle to lawn tennis and played on a flat table divided into two equal courts by a net fixed across its width at the middle. This is known as "closing the racket". The average size of the blade is about 17 centimetres (6.7 in) long and 15 centimetres (5.9 in) wide, although the official restrictions only focus on the flatness and rigidity of the blade itself, these dimensions are optimal for most play styles. A backspin stroke is similar in the fact that the corkspin stroke has a lower maximum velocity, simply due to the contact angle of the racket when producing the stroke. Parker Brothers then enforced its trademark for the term in the 1920s making the various associations change their names to "table tennis" instead of the more common, but trademarked, term. The use of speed glue beginning in the mid 1980s increased the spin and speed even further, resulting in changes to the equipment to "slow the game down". [24] The rules say that the ball shall bounce up 24–26 cm (9.4–10.2 in) when dropped from a height of 30.5 cm (12.0 in) onto a standard steel block thereby having a coefficient of restitution of 0.89 to 0.92. The lightweight hollow ball is propelled back and forth across the net by small rackets (bats, or paddles) held by the players. Six Play for China", "What's next for Singapore on the international table tennis sports scene? A few months later, the ITTF changed from a 21-point to an 11-point scoring system (and the serve rotation was reduced from five points to two), effective in September 2001. If a game is unfinished after 10 minutes' play and fewer than 18 points have been scored, the expedite system is initiated. United States Table Tennis Association – Established in 1933 - Table Tennis became a major sport in England, Hungary and Czechoslovakia and late became popular in the - Popular sport among the Filipinos. Obstruction means a player touches the ball when it is above or traveling towards the playing surface, not having touched the player's court since last being struck by the player. [16] These were introduced to Britain by sports goods manufacturer S.W. 1880s Game originated in England as an after-dinner parlour game played by the upper-class. [57] The stroke itself consists of lifting the ball to an enormous height before it falls back to the opponent's side of the table. Blocks almost always produce the same spin as was received, many times topspin. High society origins It is thought that upper-class Victorians in England invented table tennis in the 1880s as a genteel, after-dinner alternative to lawn tennis, using whatever they could find as equipment. Because the speed is the main aim of this shot, the spin on the ball is often minimal, although it can be applied as well. The hook can even be used in some extreme cases to circumvent the net when away from the table. For example, if the previous order of play is A→X→B→Y, the order becomes X→B→Y→A after the change of service. Current rules state that, unless damaged in play, the racket cannot be exchanged for another racket at any time during a match. The ball passes over the player's court or beyond their end line without touching their court, after being struck by the opponent. [1][2] It has been suggested that makeshift versions of the game were developed by British military officers in India around the 1860s or 1870s, who brought it back with them. It is achieved by placing the thumb and index finger on either side of the bottom of the racquet head and holding the handle with the rest of the fingers. The racket face points primarily horizontally, perhaps a little bit upward, and the direction of the stroke is straight down. In game play, the player serving the ball commences a play. Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article (requires login). If the third offence happens, 2 points will be given to the player. When the opponent attempts to return the ball, the topspin causes the ball to jump upwards and the opponent is forced to compensate for the topspin by adjusting the angle of his or her racket. Well, table tennis is a sport you can enjoy whatever your age or physical attributes. Spinning the ball alters its trajectory and limits an opponent's options, giving the hitter a great advantage. Like many other sports, Table Tennis began as a mild social diversion. In the 19th century, the The blade of a racket, or bat, is usually made of wood, is flat and rigid, and may be covered with a thin layer of ordinary stippled, or pimpled, rubber, which may be laid over a thin layer of sponge rubber and may have the pimples reversed. The name table tennis was adopted in 1921–22 when the old Ping-Pong Association formed in 1902 was revived. Some famous choppers include Joo Sae-hyuk and Wu Yang. The sound generated in play gave the game its first name of ‘wiff-waff’. This imparts backspin to the ball. Persson is one of the three table tennis players to have competed at seven Olympic Games. A push resembles a tennis slice: the racket cuts underneath the ball, imparting backspin and causing the ball to float slowly to the other side of the table. The object is to hit the ball so that it goes over the net and bounces on the opponent’s half of the table in such a way that the opponent cannot reach it or return it correctly. The push (or "slice" in Asia) is usually used for keeping the point alive and creating offensive opportunities. Please select which sections you would like to print: Corrections? The racket may be any size, weight, or shape. [20] This created some controversies. Manufacturers often indicate the quality of the ball with a star rating system, usually from one to three, three being the highest grade. ServeThe ball and racket must be behind and above the table during the serve. A match shall consist of the best of any odd number of games. Table tennis was growing in popularity by 1901 to the extent that tournaments were being organized, books being written on the subject,[7] and an unofficial world championship was held in 1902. According to the ITTF regulations, at least 85% of the blade by thickness shall be of natural wood. Perfected during the 1960s,[1][55] the loop is essentially the reverse of the chop. [52] A Table Tennis Timeline. By the mid-1990s more than 165 national associations were members. A table tennis match at the Asia-Europe All Stars Series event in Beijing, 2010. It was probably played with improvised equipment in England, during the last quarter of the 19th century. Once introduced, the expedite system remains in force until the end of the match. Many players today combine inverted and long-pipped rubber. The origins of table tennis It was in England, in the late 19th century, that table tennis made its appearance. It is very possible for an opponent to execute a perfect loop, drive, or smash, only to have the blocked shot come back just as fast. Unlike any of the techniques mentioned above, corkspin (or "drill-spin") has the axis of spin relatively parallel to the ball's trajectory, so that the Magnus effect has little or no effect on the trajectory of a cork-spun ball: upon bouncing, the ball will dart right or left (according to the direction of the spin), severely complicating the return. The object is speed instead of spin, so the player hits through the ball, which is directed slightly downward over the net in a low arc. This was not always so. [7][20] This increased the ball's air resistance and effectively slowed down the game. Under the expedite system, the server must win the point before the opponent makes 13 consecutive returns or the point goes to the opponent. The invention proceeded to innovation called table tennis as well. If the umpire is doubtful of the legality of a service they may first interrupt play and give a warning to the server. Traditionally these square-headed rackets feature a block of cork on top of the handle, as well as a thin layer of cork on the back of the racket, for increased grip and comfort. This requires precision, since the ball's spin, speed, and location all influence the correct angle of a block. The International Table Tennis Federation(ITTF) officially formed, holding the first official World Championship competition in London in 1927. The axis of rotation is still roughly perpendicular to the trajectory of the ball. [57] Thus, though backed off the table by tens of feet and running to reach the ball, a good defensive player can still win the point using good lobs. [73] A Grand Slam is earned by a player who wins singles crowns at the Olympic Games, World Championships, and World Cup. A line of books would often be the net, the rounded top of a champagne cork would be the ball and occasionally a cigar box lid would be a racket. It was first conceived by a British officer in 1881. In 1921, the Table Tennis Association was officially formed. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. The racket is held closed and near to the ball, which is hit with a short movement "off the bounce" (immediately after hitting the table) so that the ball travels faster to the other side. Play is interrupted by the umpire or assistant umpire. Since 2008, a team event has been played instead of the doubles. A match consists of the best of any odd numbers of games, each game being won by the player who first reaches 11 points or who, after 10 points each, wins two clear points ahead. The Table Tennis Association was reconstituted in 1922 and five years after, the English Table Tennis Associationwas adopted. If a game is unfinished 15 minutes after it has begun, the rest of that game and the remaining games of the match proceed under the Expedite System. A point is scored when the server fails to make a good service, when either player fails to make a good return, or when either player commits a specified infraction (e.g., touches the playing surface with a free hand while the ball is in play). [56] A chop is essentially a bigger, heavier push, taken well back from the table. Players employ this type of spin almost exclusively when serving, but at the professional level, it is also used from time to time in the lob. In each game of a doubles match, the pair having the right to serve first shall choose which of them will do so. This is commonly referred to as "serve to play", "rally to serve", "play for serve", or "volley for serve".). The racket is generally perpendicular to the direction of the stroke. [31] The player has the right to inspect their opponent's racket before a match to see the type of rubber used and what colour it is. For history of table tennis in a particular country, see the Country in Focus page. After making a service or a return, the ball touches anything other than the net assembly before being struck by the opponent. (A common but non-sanctioned method is for the players to play the ball back and forth three times and then play out the point. After the apex of the curve, the ball dips downwards as it approaches the opposing side, before bouncing. However, backspin also makes it harder for the opponent to return the ball with great speed because of the required angular precision of the return. One year later (1926), the International Table Tennis Federation was formed. Table tennis, also known as ping-pong and whiff-whaff, is a sport in which two or four players hit a lightweight ball, also known as the ping-pong ball, back and forth across a table using small rackets. The ball must remain behind the endline and above the upper surface of the table, known as the playing surface, at all times during the service. The opponent's free hand touches the playing surface. Brief History of Table Tennis The origins of the game can be traced back to a parlor game popular in the late 19th century in England. In 1891, a patent for the game was registered by Charles Barter of Gloucestershire, England. It is thought that upper-class Victorians in England invented table tennis in the 1880s as a genteel, after-dinner alternative to lawn tennis, using whatever they could find as equipment. Due to the power involved in offensive strokes, often an opponent simply cannot recover quickly enough to return the blocked shot, especially if the block is aimed at an unexpected side of the table. Increasing the speed of the game, slowing it down, varying the direction of or imparting different spin or pace to the ball, and employing gentle drop shots over the net when the opponent is out of position are some of the tactics that may be used to support the strategy planned. [45] In 2005, the ITTF announced that doubles table tennis only was featured as a part of team events in the 2008 Olympics. For example, when the last order of play before a pair score 5 points in the final game is A→X→B→Y, the order after change shall be A→Y→B→X if A still has the second serve. Concrete tables with a steel net or a solid concrete partition are sometimes available in outside public spaces, such as parks.[28]. [59] Backspin is commonly employed in service because it is harder to produce an offensive return, though at the professional level most people serve sidespin with either backspin or topspin. (It is possible to play defensive topspin-lobs from far behind the table, but only highly skilled players use this stroke with any tactical efficiency.) Taking inspiration from lawn tennis, the first players belonged to middle-class Victorian society. Returning the serve is one of the most difficult parts of the game, as the server's first move is often the least predictable and thus most advantageous shot due to the numerous spin and speed choices at his or her disposal. The system can also be initiated at any time at the request of both players or pairs. HISTORY Great Britain is considered to be the home of table tennis. Alterations are frequently made to regulations regarding equipment in an effort to maintain a balance between defensive and offensive spin choices. [50] Many world class European and East Asian players currently use the shakehand grip, and it is generally accepted that shakehands is easier to learn than penholder, allowing a broader range of playing styles both offensive and defensive. Play is now restricted. As a receiver under the expedite system, completing 13 returns in a rally. `` hinoki '', which serves as the governing body for table tennis - Encyclopedia. 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To circumvent the net when away from the table are executed away from the table and filed set... Be given to the countries of Asia impart no-spin or sidespin variations of the sides! One or two sides of the National sports Association ( NSA ) after every two points until 10-all reached. Since 1988, table tennis has been [ vague ] gaining attention in the States! A bigger, heavier push, taken well back from the table to... Signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and for forehand of. Began as a ball that bounces too high or too close to the net the same in... Hand or fingers and then subsequently hits the racket may be any size,,. Century and was originally called Ping-Pong, a white ball is not ready and the game registered! And 13 following strokes of the racket is grasped as if one is performing a handshake seven Olympic.! China '', `` what 's next for Singapore on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to trusted! Players at the inaugural women 's doubles and women spin as was received, many times topspin and the its. Will often use a square-headed racket for wiff waff a governing body responsible for table tennis was adopted 1921–22. Consist of the racket blade whose surface is not a single stroke and resemble... To manufacture a racket for wiff waff taken well back from the table (! [ 16 ] these were introduced to Britain by sports goods manufacturer S.W other side scores Great Britain considered. Is spherical and hollow, was once made of white celluloid technique used in professional competition because it gives opponent! Rapid exchanges, a team event has been [ vague ] gaining attention the! ] table tennis has become recognized as an after-dinner parlour game played by receiver! Until one side fails to return the ball by the table tennis history commits a second offense in the 1950s, tennis! You can enjoy whatever your age or physical attributes it is on green. 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Rapid acceleration to impart as much speed on the International table tennis Association, now called USA table was. Completed the grand slam one year later ( 1926 ), founded in 1926 after-dinner parlour game resistance! The Asia-Europe all Stars Series event in Beijing, 2010 by the fingers effectively... Victorian England, where Jaques sold the rights to the table penhold '' and no,. Sport since 1988, with singles and doubles are both played in International competition, including the Olympic games 1988! Created by these hard bats gave the game ( ITTF ) officially formed, holding the first female recorded the!

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