Search nearly 14 million words and phrases in more than 470 language pairs. This unified institution consists of land, sea, and air branches referred to as: The Croatian Armed Forces are charged with protecting the Republic as well as supporting international peacekeeping efforts, when mandated by the NATO, United Nations and/or European Union. A proud member of the Tactical Beard Owners Club, Sergei graduated from Adam Mickiewicz University with a BA in Information Science (Social Media and Open-Source Intelligence), and from The Higher Banking School with an MA in Management Psychology (War on Terror as part of Political Marketing in the US after 9/11). It was first organized military force to with the aim to control the Croat populated areas, created on 8 April 1992. Yugoslav soldiers in the suburbs of Vukovar, Croatia in November 1991. © 2020 The SOFREP Media Group. Total funding for this programme has not been made public yet, but similar western systems tend to be in range of $17â20 million per battery.  Overhaul of sea radar Falcon 2 Enhanced Peregrine â programme is being financed by US government at estimated cost of $8 million. However it has been delayed in part due to the subsequent economic recession, but also due to serious corruption that has cost the Croatian MOD several billion kuna since 2006. This is a lightweight, woodland camouflage, M65 style parka with a permanent, thin inner liner for warmth. Defence expenditures in recent years (source Croatian MOD); Although the budget has been decreased from year to year, the Croatian Armed Forces were able to maintain military readiness and to participate in major NATO exercises in Croatia and overseas. The royal military police will be granted full access to lieutenant Tanner, the individual we believe responsible. Sweepstakes: Enter to win $4,000 in prizes →. CR146.POLICIJA RH MUP â Police patch.$15.00 CR147.ZSS-Croatian Military School.$12.00 CR148.POCASNI ODRED HRVATSKE VOJSKE âPatch of Honorary task force of Croatian army.$15.00 CR149.1. Procurement of short range SAM systems â no indication of what system or specifications other than a requirement for a range of up to 10 km. Parachute jump on the day of the Armed Forces, Croatian Army soldier with a U.S. Army soldier, Special operation forces conduct close quarter battle training, Wings of Storm aerobatic team PC-9M aircraft, "Croatian Armed Forces" redirects here. LOGISTICKA BAZA ZADAR â 307th Logistic Base of HV in Zadar.$15.00 The command staff is composed of the members who served in the special units, guards brigades and reconnaissance units of the Croatian Armed Forces. The Croatian Parliament exercises democratic control over the Armed Forces by adopting defence strategy, defence budget, and defence laws. In 2002. the 4 th Guards based in Split were transferred to the Croatian Navy to become Naval Infantry. Also, this means that members of all three branches of the Croatian armed forces can apply for selection. The Navy has 29 ships, out of which five 60-80 metre fast attack craft are used in offensive capabilities. Croatian firearms manufacturer HS Produkt has earned a reputation for producing cutting-edge semi-automatic pistols since its founding in 1991. The main mission of the Special Forces Command is to ensure combat readiness of the special forces in the protection of the territorial integrity, sovereignty and independence of the Republic of Croatia, as well as for the participation in NATO-led operations. Special Forces Command (ZapovjedniÅ¡tvo specijalnih snaga, ZSS) was established in February 2015, succeeding the Special Operations Battalion (Croatia), in accordance with the Long-term Development Plan of the Croatian Armed Forces in the period 2015â2024. If youâd like an ad-free experience, consider becoming a SOFREP member and enjoy a whole host of other benefits besides the ad-free part. Special Forces Command (ZapovjedniÅ¡tvo specijalnih snaga, ZSS) was established in February 2015, succeeding the Special Operations Battalion (Croatia), in accordance with the Long-term Development Plan of the Croatian Armed Forces in the period 2015â2024. Composed of the best Special Police officers, the unit is trained for resolving hostage situations in airplanes, trains, buses, and other high-risk events involving terrorism or organized crime. A unit of a military organization whose duty is to police that particular organization. It also has a number of units under its direct command, including the Special Operations Battalion, Honour Guard Battalion and several others. Currently leading a quiet life as Polish Army reservist, Sergei's main fields of study include: Psychology in Propaganda, Information Security, Open-Source Intelligence, Information Analysis, Conflicts in the Caucasus. The vast majority of these exports are to NATO partners such as the US, Norway, Australia, Canada, France. Croatia has a requirement for a small number of fighter aircraft (6-12) to replace the MiG-21. As a result, six Croatian Army soldiers were arrested. The academy has 300 full-time staff and is the only military academy in Croatia. eura, SAD ostaje najveÄi kupac", Croatian Forces International Volunteers Association official website, Croatian Military Academy official website, Director General of the Military Staff/Director of the Military Planning and Conduct Capability, Director of the Civilian Planning and Conduct Capability, Crisis Management and Planning Directorate, Committee for Civilian Aspects of Crisis Management, Directorate-General for Defence Industry and Space, Medal for Extraordinary Meritorious Service, Organisation for Joint Armament Cooperation, Operations of the European Border and Coast Guard, Operations of the European Maritime Force, Operations of the European Rapid Operational Force, Missions of the European Gendarmerie Force, Treaty establishing the European Defence Community, Supreme Headquarters Allied Powers Europe, Vasil Levski National Military University, General Jonas Å½emaitis Military Academy of Lithuania, Ãcole des officiers de la gendarmerie nationale, General Tadeusz KoÅciuszko Military University of Land Forces, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Republic_of_Croatia_Armed_Forces&oldid=996535506, Wikipedia articles needing factual verification from December 2019, Articles containing Croatian-language text, Articles needing additional references from October 2012, All articles needing additional references, Srpskohrvatski / ÑÑÐ¿ÑÐºÐ¾Ñ ÑÐ²Ð°ÑÑÐºÐ¸, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, United Nations Military Observer Group in India and Pakistan â, International Security Assistance Force â, United Nations Mission for the Referendum in Western Sahara â, United Nations Operation in CÃ´te d'Ivoire â, United Nations Stabilization Mission in Haiti â, United Nations Peacekeeping Force in Cyprus â, United Nations Observer Mission in Georgia â, United Nations Mission of Support in East Timor â, United Nations Mission in Sierra Leone â, United Nations Mission in Ethiopia and Eritrea â, United Nations Disengagement Observer Force â, Talks are being held with US and German governments on possible purchase of. is a Poland-based firearms instructor and security consultant. The government wants to give police powers to the military so as to allow troops to take over some of the tasks from police officers patrolling Slovenia's border with Croatia, which is also the Schengen border. The rank insignia for commissioned officers for the army, navy and air force respectively. Procurement of advanced short to medium range. Croatian firms are participating in Kuwaiti and UAE tenders for next-generation APC programmes, each valued at billions of euros. On April 1, 2009 Croatia joined NATO and on July 1, 2013 it became the 28th member of the European Union. In late 2014 the Croatian Defence Minister announced a major export deal to Iraq including the State of Kurdistan. The Special Police â¦ Translation for: 'military police' in English->Chinese dictionary. he's, as far as i know, adviser in security of private companies. Since it was illegal to establish a separate military in a constituent of the SFRY, the ZNG was planned as part of the police force under Croatiaâs Ministry of the Interior. A week after the murders, Croatian military and civilian police launched an operation to find the perpetrators. In the Croatian Homeland War (1991-1995), the Special Police was actually stood-up as the first official Croatian armed force, before the Armed Forces (Army) were officialy created. The duties of an Honour Guard are performed by the Honor Guard Battalion (PoÄasno zaÅ¡titna bojna), located at Zagreb in the TuÅ¡kanac military base.. The Croatian authorities considered arming a police force for military capabilities in case of future confrontations with the YPA. The unit has personnel trained in HALO/HAHO jumps, diving and other infiltration methods. A plan to acquire ex-Israeli F-16C/Ds was cancelled in January 2019 after the United States refused to allow Israel to sell the aircraft. Itâs how we can continue producing high quality coverage of warfare and global issues for you to enjoy. Possible purchase of 2nd minesweeper before 2020; although there are only indications that this might happen if funds can be allocated. left one is Mate Lausic, ex chief of Tudjman's personal security and commander of croatian military police. Military Police Member (Croatian Army).jpg 383 × 623; 57 KB Motociklist Vojne policije HV.jpg 1,114 × 1,077; 844 KB Oznaka Croatia ISAF NATO OTAN 080810 5.jpg 533 × 800; 573 KB The President of the Republic of Croatia Zoran MilanoviÄ participated in the official celebration in Knin marking Victory and Homeland Thanksgiving Day, Day of Croatian Defenders and the 25 th Anniversary of the Military-Police Operation Storm. The Croatian Armed Forces participate in many of the (military) aspects of both organisations as well as actively participating in many United Nations peacekeeping operations worldwide. In first instance, KurtoviÄ was found guilty on all charges and sentenced to 11 yearsâ imprisonment. Croatia. The Special Military Police Company is a part of the Military Police Regiment. When military police saw Liao snapping photos with his cellphone camera, they took the phone and called a federal agent, the complaint said. On August 4, 1995, military and police forces of the Republic of Croatia launched a military and police action throughout the Republic of Serbian Krajina (RSK) during and after which they committed serious violations of international war and humanitarian law provisions, especially those concerning protection â¦ Interior Minister AleÅ¡ Hojs told the Odmevi news show this evening that the proposal has not secured sufficient support in parliament. The Republic of Croatia Armed Forces (Croatian: OruÅ¾ane snage Republike Hrvatske â OSRH) is the military service of Croatia. Below is the full text of the speech delivered on that occasion by President Zoran MilanoviÄ: The President is the Armed Forces Commander-in-Chief, and exercises administrative powers in times of war by giving orders to the chief of staff, while administration and defence policy execution in peacetime is carried out by the Government through the Ministry of Defence. The Croatian military police has launched a corruption probe in the July 2013 purchase of 12 Mikoyan MiG-21 fighter jets after they found five of the aircraft actually belonged to Yemen Air Force. Croatia granted â¬5.75 billion in export licenses in 2016 and 2017; however, only a fraction of this sum has materialised in actual arms exports.. A defence white paper was published in 2015 with emphasis placed on modernisation of the Army. The command staff is composed of the members who served in the special units, guards brigades and reconnaissance units of the Croatian Armed Forces. In late 2019, Croatian Government issued revised defence expenditure which will see country increase defence expenditure to meet 2% NATO target by 2020, with 2019 and 2020 defence budgets seeing immediate revisions and increases to meet new spending plan. For few years back he is involved in privat sector i.e. , Total available male manpower aged 16â49 numbers 1,035,712, of which 771,323 are technically fit for military service. The Armed Forces consist of peacetime and wartime components. To comment on this article please login or create an account. Military police detachments were formed in summer 1941 for assignment to the garrison commands. VP is defined as Vojna Policija (Croatian: Military Police) somewhat frequently. We would appreciate it tremendously if you could whitelist us in your adblocker. Join SOFREP for insider access and analysis. Of the 14,506 active military personnel, 3,183 were officers, 5,389 non-commissioned officers, 5,393 soldiers, 520 military specialists, 337 civil servants and 1,176 other employees. The wartime component of the Armed Forces includes all other reservists. Original Croatian Military-Police Patch. 6 reviews. In 2014 Croatian arms exports reached 1.5 bn HRK (Croatian kuna) or â¬200 million or $257 million, the majority of exports being to NATO allies and Australia. Defence expenditure in 2024 therefore based on current projections could reach 9.4 billion kuna or around 2% NATO requirement. The Special Police Units are not to be mistaken for Intervention Police Units, which are typical riot-squads (as often happens to the local media). Croatia was the top supplier of arms to Syrian rebels in 2013, but much of it through illicit channels without Croatian government approval or knowledge. FORCES IN KRAJINA . Guest 25-May-2007 18:19: he work in ministry of defence in Zagreb: In August 1995, the Croatian army launched a full-scale invasion to recover all of the Serb-held areas in Krajina. We understand ads might not be why youâre here, but our ad revenue is one of the ways we keep the lights on and our veteran writing staff paid. Each year also 100â120 foreign nationals attend the academy. In 2012, Croatia managed to export nearly â¬120 million. Purchase of up to 10â12 transport helicopters (after 2020) â replacing older. Other special operations units are the Military Intelligence Battalion (Vojno-obavjeÅ¡tajna bojna, VOB) and Special Military Police Company (Satnija specijalne vojne policije, SS VP). Navy plans are still being worked on but present plans call for a moderate expansion of the naval force. This agreement includes the sale of 20,000 VHS Rifles, 150,000 complete sets of uniforms, helmets and associated equipment valued at â¬100 million. A long term modernisation plan for 2015â2024 has been published outlining overall goals and is available for download (102 pages) at the Ministry of Defence of Croatia website. Croatian Military Police M65 Parka | Woodland Camo. After the war the Special Police has been transformed into its current state which is a respectable law enforcement unit ready to fight modern crime and terrorism. The Croatian military ranks are the military insignia used by the Republic of Croatia Armed Forces. Officer ranks. The Croatian military budget for the past 6â7 years was kept below 2% of GDP, a vast difference from the 1990s when defence expenditure represented a major stake in Croatian budgetary expenditure due to the Croatian War of Independence. Many initial Special Police members were eventually transferred to the fledgling Army. NOVO MESTO, Slovenia -- Although they are geographically an ocean away from one other, military police from the 220th Military Police Company, 193rd Military Police â¦ Coast Guard. The Army has 650 AFVs, around 150 pieces of artillery, 100 MLRSs, around 70 tanks, and 20 SPGs. Programme cost â 80 million kuna. Its members are well-trained in methods of land-air-sea infil and exfil and the use of various optical and sensor systems. 70 mm. Nashville Explosion: What Is Known Thus Far, China Reportedly Demanded that Big Chinese Tech Companies Process Stolen US Data for the Nation’s Top Spies, Afghan Christmas Fiery Battle Bench Navy SEALs: No $hit There I was…, Building Your Ultimate Sniper Rifle â Remington 700 Upgrade, Fort Bragg Special Operations Medic Kills Pregnant Wife Before Turning Gun on Himself. The sleeve insignia for Kapetan bojnog broda. The Croatian police force has 4 special police units, one in each of the major cities (Zagreb, Split, Rijeka, Osijek) and they perform standard police SWAT tasks. In peace, the Commander-in-Chief exercises his command through the Minister of Defence. Nevertheless, these arms played a crucial role in some significant rebel gains during 2012. The Commander-in-Chief prescribes the organisation of the Croatian Armed Forces at the proposal of the Chief of General Staff, with consent of the Minister of Defence. This downsizing of the armed forces has allowed for more funds to be allocated to modernisation over the past few years with an average of 1.6 billion kuna spent on modernisation, infrastructure and construction of new facilities.. The Special Police Units fall under a centralized Special Police Command which also includes an Aviation unit and a Diving Training Center. AUTOMOBILSKA BOJNA MORH â1st Car brigade of MORH.$12.00 CR150.307.  However it has been reported in The New York Times that Croatia has been arming Syrian rebels with Croatian manufactured arms used during the Homeland War, arms Croatia no longer uses due to their obsolescence. Scores of smaller programmes, communication equipment, night vision capability, electronic sensors, NBC equipment, battlefield management systems and modernisation of artillery systems with new sights and electronic fire control systems are planned. The Croatian General Staff exercises direct command over the battalion which thus elevates the unit to strategic level deployment for quicker reaction and overall better and faster response to tactical and strategic situations. Primarily employed as a Quick Reaction Force or Counter Assault Team for critical military infrastructure or military VIPs, in recent years it has been training for its additional duties in the NATO Multinational Military Police Battalion, which consists of forces from Polish, Czech, Slovakian and Croatian MP forces. In the extremely perilous early days of the war, the unit members designed their unit emblem to be similar to the US SF insignia and it is proudly worn to this day. The Deep Surveillance Company is one of the elements of the Military Intelligence Battalion, whose primary task is ISTAR in support of the Croatian Armed Forces. Photo: EPA/MAJA ILIC. The Croatian police force has 4 special police units, one in each of the major cities (Zagreb, Split, Rijeka, Osijek) and they perform standard police SWAT tasks. Croatia Croatia. The main mission of the Special Forces Command is to ensure combat readiness of thâ¦ Built for the Vojna Policija (military police), it features a zipper front and button-up flap, four large front pockets, an internal drawstring waist, and a zipper-hidden hood with a drawstring in the collar. Q4 SOFREP Sweepstakes - Over $4,000 in prizes - Click here for more information →, Sweepstakes: Enter to win $4,000 in prizes →. How is Vojna Policija (Croatian: Military Police) abbreviated? Capital:Zagreb. The peacetime component is composed of the active military officers, civil servants and employees in the Croatian Armed Forces, cadets, and conscripts serving a 6-month national service and reservists when on military exercise. CRIMES COMMITTED BY CROATIAN MILITARY AND POLICE. Choose options. NATO member nation. Synonyms for military police include gendarmerie, constabulary, MP, police officer, bobby, constable, cop, copper, flatfoot and gendarme. One more element under the Special Police Command is the LuÄko Counterterrorism Unit (AntiteroristiÄka jedinica LuÄko – ATJ), which is equivalent to the FBI HRT or other, national-level hostage rescue units. A $3 billion modernisation plan was proposed by the then Prime Minister Ivica RaÄan of the SDP led government in 2003, with planned modernisation starting in 2006 and ending in 2015. ... âWe have identified facilities in Sid, a military police training centre in â¦ The General Staff is part of the Ministry of Defence in charge of commanding, training and use of the Armed Forces. A new plan under former Prime Minister Zoran MilanoviÄ should define exactly how and what the Croatian armed forces should look like by 2023. WOW LIFE Recommended for you T/I: 11:17:33 The first 500 US military police of the so-called "reshaping of forces" for Operation Joint Endeavor arrived in Bosnia on Saturday 17/8). According to earlier reports from the government, the Croatian Armed Forces are set to receive vitally needed new equipment. Q4 SOFREP Sweepstakes - Over $4,000 in prizes - Click here for more information → (RFE/RL) March 2, 2006 -- A Croatian court today sentenced eight former military policemen for war crimes during the 1991-95 conflict for Croatia's independence from the former Yugoslavia.  As a result of these arms sales into this volatile region the Croatian government ordered the immediate withdrawal of the Croatian UN Golan Heights contingent to avoid their being targeted in retaliation. Croatian female military police officer Dr. Vlasta ZekuliÄ earned her PhD in international relations and national security from the University of Zagreb, and completed the Police Academy in Croatia and the prestigious Military Academy "The Citadel" in Charleston in South Carolina in the USA. The Air Force has 12 MiG-21 jet fighters, 10 combat-transport Mi-171 and 16 OH-58 attack helicopters. Military Police: Special Military Police Company (Vojna policija: Satnija specijalne vojne policije – SSVP) Intent is for up to 3 batteries with one battery being ready by 2015/6.  Colonel Perica Turalija is the current commanding officer of the command. Zijad KurtoviÄ, a commander of a military police platoon of the Bosnian army, was accused of involvement in war crimes committed during the war between Croatia and Bosnia (1992-1995). Find many great new & used options and get the best deals for Army Republic Croatia Patch Military Police 1992. at the best online prices at eBay! The Commander-in-Chief of all Croatian armed forces in peace and war is the President of the Republic. ", "Å TO SMO NAUÄILI IZ NAJVEÄE VOJNE VJEÅ½BE ODRÅ½ANE U HRVATSKOJ OD ZAVRÅ ETKA RATA? Croatian arms exports are growing steadily at 10â15% year-on-year and were expected to reach 1.75 billion HRK in 2015 or around â¬230 million, although much of the equipment exported is non-lethal. Kuwait, the UAE, and Saudi Arabia have been mentioned as potential customers, although no concrete contracts have been signed so far. The Croatian military police on Wednesday observed their 25th anniversary at the Croatia barracks with a ceremony which heard that the military police were founded in the midst of the Homeland War and that in 2003 they were the first Croatian military unit to participate in NATO's ISAF peace mission in Afghanistan. Throughout the war, the Special Police was utilized as elite light infantry and took part in heavy fighting in some of the most inhospitable terrains. All Rights Reserved. Learn More- opens in a new window or tab Any international shipping and import charges are paid in part to Pitney Bowes Inc. Croatian arms exports have grown steadily for the better part of this decade and have reached â¬325 million per year, placing Croatia in the top 10 arms exporters within NATO, behind the US, Germany, UK, France, Netherlands, Spain, Italy, Poland and Norway. There are two additional specialized units within the Croatian Armed Forces, and although they are not SOF, a short description follows. Hrvatska vojska viÅ¡e ne sluÅ¾i samo za mirovne operacije - Jutarnji List", "OgraniÄeni vojni proraÄun za 2011. iznosi pet milijardi kuna", "NACRT PRORAÄUNA - kupuje se Air Tractor za obuku i jedan ophodni brod do 2015", "Nestali u tiÅ¡ini: Hrvatska vojska s 43.000 spala na 17.000 zaposlenih - VeÄernji.hr", https://www.jutarnji.hr/vijesti/hrvatska/video-hrvatska-vojska-testirala-novo-mocno-naoruzanje-stizu-patrije-s-izraelskim-topom-8-sofisticiranih-stanica-instalirat-ce-u-dok-ing-u-i-dakovicu/9683932/, https://www.morh.hr/zakljucak-vlade-rh-o-postupnom-povecanju-izdvajanja-za-obranu/, https://www.rtl.hr/vijesti-hr/novosti/hrvatska/3607929/raste-vojni-proracun-zbog-nato-a-cemo-na-obranu-trositi-cak-40-posto-vise/, "PREDSTAVLJEN PLAN JAVNE NABAVE MORH-a ZA IDUÄU GODINU", "HRT: MORH predstavio ostvarenje plana nabave za 2013. i plan za 2014", "Minister BuljeviÄ visits Croatian Army and Special Operations Command - Ministry of Defence of the Republic of Croatia", "Special Forces Command marks 1st Anniversary - Ministry of Defence of the Republic of Croatia", "Croatia plans to upgrade its M-84 Main Battle Tanks' fleet | February 2018 Global Defense Security army news industry | Defense Security global news industry army 2018 | Archive News year", https://www.jutarnji.hr/vijesti/hrvatska/foto-video-uskoro-stizu-oklopna-vozila-koja-ce-povecati-vatrenu-moc-hv-a-krsticevic-otkrio-amerikanci-nam-salju-84-bradleyja/9673192/, "Croatia has asked United States to donate 16 M270 Multiple launch Rocket Systems from US surplus 11201162 | January 2016 Global Defense Security news industry | Defense Security global news industry army 2016 | Archive News year", "Rafael to benefit from Elbit win in Croatia weapons tender", http://hr.n1info.com/English/NEWS/a361583/Israel-Croatia-F-16-deal-officially-pronounced-dead.html, "Vlada Republike Hrvatske - Zahtjev za ponudu VBA upuÄen je prema sedam drÅ¾ava", https://www.janes.com/article/83844/us-donates-uh-60m-helicopters-to-croatia, "Croatia cleared to buy Black Hawks | Jane's 360", "Croatia takes delivery of first locally-built inshore patrol vessel 'OmiÅ¡, "Hrvatska meÄu 25 najveÄih izvoznika vojne opreme na svijetu: lanjski izvoz 880 milijuna kuna / Novi list", "In Shift, Saudis Are Said to Arm Rebels in Syria", "In Shift, Saudis Are Said to Arm Rebels in Syria - The New York Times", http://bosnian.irib.ir/vijesti/bih-i-region/item/160013-hrvatski-izvoz-oruÅ¾ja-blizu-143-miliona-eura, "Croatian military output approaches USD1 billion", "Hrvatska trgovala preko Jordana: Siriji prodano oruÅ¾je vrijedno 200 milijuna kuna", "KotromanoviÄ: Lani izvezeno 25 posto viÅ¡e vojne opreme i oruÅ¾ja > Slobodna Dalmacija", "Izvezli oruÅ¾ja za 200 mil. from $29.99. Djuro Brodarac, a Croatian police general charged with torturing and killing Serbian civilians in the early 1990s, died 13 July 2011. Army. The total number of active military personnel in the Croatian Armed Forces stands at 14,506 and 6,000 reserves working in various service branches of the armed forces. In the beginning, the company produced the PHP and HS95 pistols for the newly formed government of Croatia for use by its military and police forces. Male citizens are now no longer subject to compulsory military service since January 1, 2008. Each I Class garrison command along with the City of Zagreb received a military police detachment of 40 men and the II Class garrison commands received a military police detachment of 24 men. The Deep Surveillance Company focuses on HUMINT, and usually operates in 6-man LRS teams. Quick shop. Dogs That Will Always Have Your Back | Top 10 Best Guardian Dogs for your Home - Duration: 9:50. Free shipping for many products! Kraljevska vojna policija Äe imati pristup poruÄniku Taneru, za koga se veruje da je odgovoran. For example, 1995 Croatian defence budget stood at 12.4 billion Croatian Kuna or just over 10% of GDP, which was also the highest defence expenditure rate ever.