ALLER A LA TABLE DES MATIÈRES DE CICÉRON . Yet amidst the difficulties of affairs, and the shortness of time. ("Agamemnon", "Hom. Sull. Textvorstellung und einführende Bemerkungen zum Text aus Ciceros de oratore. What can I say of that repository for all things, the memory, which, unless it be made the keeper of the matter and words that are the fruits of thought and invention, all the talents of the orator, we see, though they be of the highest degree of excellence, will be of no avail? M. Tullius Cicero, De Oratore A. S. Wilkins, Ed. And if Plato spoke divinely upon subjects most remote from civil controversies, as I grant that he did; if also Aristotle, and Theophrastus, and Carneades, were eloquent, and spoke with sweetness and grace on those matters which they discussed; let the subjects on which they spoke belong to other studies, but their speech itself, surely, is the peculiar offspring of that art of which we are now discoursing and inquiring. whether a speech can be adapted to excite or calm the thoughts and passions (which alone is a great business of the orator) without a most diligent examination of all those doctrines which are set forth on the nature and manners of men by the philosophers? ** for this plane-tree of yours has put me in mind of it, which diffuses its spreading boughs to overshade this place, not less widely than that did whose cover Socrates sought, and which seems to me to have grown not so much from the rivulet which is described, as from the language of Plato: and what Socrates, with the hardest of feet, used to do, that is, to throw himself on the grass, while he delivered those sentiments which philosophers say were uttered divinely, may surely, with more justice, be allowed to my feet." Obss. [11] Of all those who have engaged in the most liberal pursuits and departments of such sciences, I think I may truly say that a smaller number of eminent poets have arisen than of men distinguished in any other branch of literature; and in the whole multitude of the learned, among whom there rarely appears one of the highest excellence, there will be found, if you will but make a careful review of our own list and that of the Greeks, far fewer good orators than good poets. Od. Traduction nouvelle, par P. C. B. Gueroult 707 + NOTES (bilingue) DISCOURS DE CICÉRON POUR SA MAISON. Reviews There are no reviews yet. (3)   He refers to his exile, and the proposed union between Caesar and Pompey to make themselves masters of the whole commonwealth, a matter to which he was unwilling to allude more plainly. For what have I either learned or had a possibility of knowing, who entered upon pleading before I had any instruction; whom the pressure of business overtasked amidst the occupations of the forum, of canvassing, of public affairs, and the management of the cases of friends, before I could form any true notion of the importance of such great employments? Go on, therefore, as you are doing, young men, and apply earnestly to the study in which you are engaged, that you may be an honour to yourselves, an advantage to your friends, and a benefit to the republic.". ». See Plin. [9] L   It does not escape your observation that what the Greeks call philosophy, is esteemed by the most learned men, the originator, as it were, and parent of all the arts which merit praise; philosophy, I say, in which it is difficult to enumerate how many distinguished men there have been, and of how great knowledge, variety, and comprehensiveness in their studies, men who have not confined their labours to one province separately, but have embraced whatever they could master either by scientific investigations, or by processes of reasoning. 2. {18.} I shall endeavour to gratify my love of literature; and whatever leisure the malice of enemies, the legal cases of friends, or the public service will allow me, I shall chiefly devote to writing. [35] L   Scaevola then observed with courtesy, as was always his manner, "I agree with Crassus as to other points (that I may not detract from the art or glory of Laelius, my father-in-law, or of my son-in-law here), ** but I am afraid, Crassus, that I cannot grant you these two points; one, that states were, as you said, originally established, and have often been preserved, by orators; the other, that, setting aside the forum, the assemblies of the people, the courts of judicature, and the senate-house, the orator is, as you pronounced, accomplished in every subject of conversation and learning. These points I then discussed with the philosophers in person at Athens, for Marcus Marcellus, our countryman, who is now curule aedile, obliged me to do so, and he would certainly have taken part in our present conversation, were he not now celebrating the public games; for he was then a youth marvellously given to these studies. [13] L   Yet it cannot be said with truth, either that more are devoted to the other arts, or that they are excited by greater pleasure, more abundant hope, or more ample rewards; for to say nothing of Greece, which was always desirous to hold the first place in eloquence, and Athens, that inventress of all literature, in which the utmost power of oratory was both discovered and brought to perfection, in this very city of ours, assuredly, no studies were ever pursued with more earnestness than those tending to the acquisition of eloquence. For in that period, ** which seemed likely to offer most quiet and tranquillity, the greatest pressures of trouble and the most turbulent storms arose. ("Agamemnon", "Hom. It would have been nearer truth to say, that no man can be eloquent on a subject that he doers not understand; and that, if he understands a subject ever so well, but is ignorant how to form and polish his speech, he cannot express himself eloquently even about what he does understand. 1 citation < Page 1/1. [21] Yet I will not lay so great a burden upon orators, especially our own, amid so many occupations of public and private life, as to think it allowable for them to be ignorant of nothing; although the qualifications of an orator, and his very profession of speaking well, seem to undertake and promise that he can discourse gracefully and copiously on whatever subject is proposed to him. But this he will certainly accomplish, that, of whatever matter he gains a knowledge, or from whomsoever, he will speak upon it much more elegantly than the very person from whom he gained the knowledge. [31] For what is so admirable as that, out of an infinite multitude of men, there should arise a single individual, who can alone, or with only a few others, exert effectually that power which nature has granted to all ? ii. Several alterations have been proposed, but none of them bring the sentence into a satisfactory state. Il en confia le manuscrit à Gasparini de Bergamen qui en fit faire une copie par Cosme de Crémone. [34] And that I may not mention more examples, which are almost without number, I will conclude the subject in one short sentence: for I consider, that by the judgment and wisdom of the perfect orator, not only his own honour, but that of many other individuals, and the welfare of the whole state, are principally upheld. Max. Cicerone - Rhetorica - De Oratore - Liber I - 59: Brano visualizzato 5844 volte [LIX] Nihilne igitur prodest oratori iuris civilis scientia? 15, says that the freedmen were previously dispersed among all the four city tribes, and that Gracchus included them all in the Esquiline tribe. But this kind of diction, if there be not matter beneath it clear and intelligible to the speaker, must either amount to nothing, or be received with ridicule by all who hear it. Citations De Oratore, III, 22 Sélection de 1 citation et proverbe sur le thème De Oratore, III, 22 Découvrez un dicton, une parole, un bon mot, un proverbe, une citation ou phrase De Oratore, III, 22 issus de livres, discours ou entretiens. [XVI] [59] Sed quod erant quidam eique multi, qui aut in re publica propter ancipitem, ... [85] Ac tamen, quoniam de oratore nobis disputandum est, de summo oratore dicam necesse est; vis enim et natura rei, nisi perfecta ante oculos ponitur, qualis et quanta sit intellegi non potest. And Asclepiades, ** whom we knew as a physician and a friend, did not, when he excelled others of his profession in eloquence, employ, in his graceful elocution, the art of medicine, but that of oratory. [50] For we see that some have reasoned on the same subjects plainly and drily, as Chrysippus, whom they celebrate as the acutest of philosophers; nor is he on this account to be thought to have been deficient in philosophy, because he did not gain the talent of speaking from an art which is foreign to philosophy. 9.1", "denarius"). [12] This ought to seem the more wonderful, as attainments in other sciences are drawn from obscure and hidden springs; but the whole art of speaking lies before us, and is concerned with common usage and the custom and language of all men; so that while in other things that is most excellent which is most remote from the knowledge and understanding of the illiterate, it is in speaking even the greatest of faults to vary from the ordinary kind of language, and the practice sanctioned by universal reason. 1,430 Views . 11; Beier, ad Off. Translated by J.S.Watson (1860), with some minor alterations. (8)   Prudentissimorum. 47; Philipp. LIVRE SECOND . Ernesti. [29] Then Crassus replied, "Nay, we will yet further consult your convenience," and called for cushions; when they all, said Cotta, sat down on the seats that were under the plane-tree. A controversy indeed on the word orator has long disturbed the pedantic Greeks, who are fonder of argument than of truth. Celsus often refers to his authority as the founder of a new party. Od.   |   06.06.19 1; xvii, 15; Hor. ("Agamemnon", "Hom. Timaei, v. amphilaphes, and Manutius ad Cic. {12.} [52] If indeed any one shall say that there are certain trains of thought and reasoning properly belonging to orators, and a knowledge of certain things circumscribed within the limits of the forum, I will confess that our common speech is employed about these matters chiefly; but yet there are many things, in these very topics, which those masters of rhetoric, as they are called, neither teach nor understand. DE L'ORATEUR . Is there any trace of eloquence apparent in Numa Pompilius, in Servius Tullius, or in the rest of our kings, from whom we have many excellent regulations for maintaining our government? What cause there had been for unfriendliness between him and Scaevola is unknown; perhaps he might have spoken too freely, or made some satirical remark on the accusation of Scaevola by Albucius for bribery, on which there are some verses in b. iii. Henrichsen. Le visage est le miroir de l'âme.De Oratore, III, 22 de . with the additional restriction that you offer Perseus any modifications you make. Od. For often in those cases which all acknowledge properly to belong to orators, there is something to be drawn forth and adopted, not from the routine of the forum, which is the only knowledge that you grant to the orator, but from some of the more obscure sciences. Click on ** to go to the translator's footnotes. Ellendt. ** [75] When I went as praetor to Rhodes, and communicated to Apollonius, that famous instructor in this profession, what I had learned from Panaetius, Apollonius, as was his manner, ridiculed these matters, ** threw contempt upon philosophy, and made many other observations with less wisdom than wit; but your remarks were of such a kind as not to express contempt for any arts or sciences, but to admit that they are all attendants and handmaids of the orator; [76] and if ever any one should comprehend them all, and the same person should add to that knowledge the powers of supremely elegant oratory, I cannot but say that he would be a man of high distinction and worthy of the greatest admiration. [84] Charmadas indeed spoke much more diffusely on those topics; not that he delivered his own opinion (for it is the hereditary custom of every one in the Academy to take the part of opponents to all in their disputations), but what he chiefly signified was, that those who were called rhetoricians, and laid down rules for the art of speaking, understood nothing; and that no man could attain any command of eloquence who had not mastered the doctrines of the philosophers. line to jump to another position: Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 United States License, http://data.perseus.org/citations/urn:cts:latinLit:phi0474.phi037.perseus-lat1:3.59, http://data.perseus.org/texts/urn:cts:latinLit:phi0474.phi037.perseus-lat1, http://data.perseus.org/texts/urn:cts:latinLit:phi0474.phi037, http://data.perseus.org/catalog/urn:cts:latinLit:phi0474.phi037.perseus-lat1. he will consult with Sextus Pompeius, ** a man learned in philosophy. {5.} Click on ** to go to the translator's footnotes. (34)   Two Sicilians, said to have been the most ancient writers on rhetoric. ("Agamemnon", "Hom. [20] L   In my opinion, indeed, no man can be an orator possessed of every praiseworthy accomplishment, unless he has attained the knowledge of everything important, and of all liberal arts, for his language must be ornate and copious from knowledge, since, unless there be beneath the surface matter understood and felt by the speaker, oratory becomes an empty and almost puerile flow of words. [14] For when our empire over all nations was established, and after a period of peace had secured tranquillity, there was scarcely a youth ambitious of praise who did not think that he must strive, with all his endeavours, to attain the art of speaking. xi. M. Tullius Cicero, De Oratore A. S. Wilkins, Ed. Cicero speaks of it as exilis, poor and dry, Brut. Perseus provides credit for all accepted Cicero was augur, quaestor, aedile, praetor, consul, and proconsul of Asia. c. . A. S. Wilkins. 96 . [1] L   As I frequently contemplate and call to mind the times of old, those men in general seem to me, brother Quintus, to have been supremely happy, who, while they were distinguished with honours and the glory of their actions in the best days of the republic, were enabled to pursue such a course of life, that they could continue either in employment without danger, or in retirement with dignity. Cicero, De Oratore - Book 1 , 96-184 . Mnesarchus, too, was in great esteem, a hearer of your friend Panaetius, and Diodorus, a pupil of Critolaus the Peripatetic; [46] and there were many other famous men besides, highly distinguished in philosophy, by all of whom, as if with one voice, as I observed, the orator was repelled from the government of states, excluded from all learning and knowledge of great affairs, and degraded and thrust down into the courts of justice and petty assemblies, as into a workshop. But if there should be such a one, or indeed has ever been, or can possibly be, you alone would be the person; who, not only in my judgment, but in that of all men, have hardly left to other orators (I speak it with deference to this company) any glory to be acquired. [30] After he had commenced in this manner, saying that indeed Sulpicius and Cotta did not seem to need his exhortations, but rather both to deserve his praise, as they had already attained such powers as not only to excel their equals in age, but to be admitted to a comparison with their seniors; "Nor does anything seem to me," he added, "more noble than to be able to fix the attention of assemblies of men by speaking, to fascinate their minds, to direct their passions to whatever object the orator pleases, and to dissuade them from whatsoever he desires. [25] There went out with Crassus himself two young men besides, great friends of Drusus, youths of whom our ancestors then entertained sanguine hopes that they would maintain the dignity of their order; Gaius Cotta, who was then a candidate to be tribune of the people, and Publius Sulpicius, who was thought likely to stand for that office in due course. Loading... Unsubscribe from InaDisguise? (2)   There was a certain course of honours through which the Romans passed. [66] Thus, if our friend Sulpicius will have to speak on military affairs, he will inquire about them of my kinsman Gaius Marius, ** and when he has received information, will speak upon them in such a manner, that he shall seem to Marius to understand them better than himself. (7)   The two books De Inventione Rhetorica. [48] For if any one pronounces him to be an orator who can speak fluently only on law in general, or on judicial questions, or before the people, or in the senate, he must yet necessarily grant and allow him a variety of talents; for he cannot treat even of these matters with sufficient skill and accuracy without great attention to all public affairs, nor without a knowledge of laws, customs, and equity, nor without understanding the nature and manners of mankind; and to him who knows these things, without which no one can maintain even the most minute points in judicial pleadings, how much is wanting of the knowledge even of the most important affairs? Ellendt. See Turneb. Yet who doubts that we can produce, from this city alone, almost innumerable excellent commanders, while we can number scarcely a few eminent in speaking? De oratore LIBER I - lateinisch ... 59. fifty years before Christ. For it is by this one gift that we are most distinguished from brute animals, that we converse together, and can express our thoughts by speech. But the art of eloquence is something greater, and collected from more sciences and studies, than people imagine. [4] As to you, brother, I shall not fail to obey your exhortations and entreaties; for no person can have more influence with me than you have both by authority and affection. M. Tullius Cicero. But their phraseology was intricate and dry, and quite unsuited to my taste. (26)   Nicander, a physician, grammarian, and poet, flourished in the time of Attalus, the second king of Pergamus, about (?) Or what is so striking, so astonishing, as that the tumults of the people, the religious feelings of judges, the gravity of the senate, should be swayed by the speech of one man? Georg. 1. 9.1", "denarius") All Search Options [view abbreviations] Home Collections/Texts Perseus Catalog Research Grants Open Source About Help. Non negare prodesse ullam scientiam, ei praesertim, cuius eloquentia copia rerum debeat esse ornata; sed multa et magna et difficilia sunt ea, quae sunt oratori necessaria, ut eius industriam in plura studia distrahere nolim. The object was to allow the freedmen as little influence as possible in voting. [92] But he denied there was any art, except such as lay in things that were known and thoroughly understood, things tending to the same object, and never misleading; but that everything treated by the orators was doubtful and uncertain; as it was uttered by those who did not fully understand it, and was heard by them to whom knowledge was not meant to be communicated, but merely false, or at least obscure notions, intended to live in their minds only for a short time. 9.1", "denarius") All Search Options [view abbreviations] Home Collections/Texts Perseus Catalog Research Grants Open Source About Help. (30)   Orellius reads Haec--irrisit, where the reader will observe that the pronoun is governed by the verb. Ellendt. Henrichsen. [82] For when I, who late in life, and then but lightly, touched upon Greek learning, was going as proconsul into Cilicia, and had arrived at Athens, I waited there several days on account of the difficulty of sailing; and as I had every day with me the most learned men, nearly the same that you have just now named, and a report, I know not how, had spread amongst them that I, like you, was involved in cases of great importance, every one, according to his abilities, took occasion to discourse upon the office and art of in orator. (24)   The son of the great Gaius Marius, seven times consul, had married Mucia, the daughter of the augur Scaevola. [58] L   "Of the institution of laws, of war, of peace, of alliances, of tributes, of the civil law as relating to various ranks and ages respectively, ** let the Greeks say, if they will, that Lycurgus or Solon (although I think that these should be enrolled in the number of the eloquent) had more knowledge than Hypereides or Demosthenes, men of the highest accomplishments and refinement in oratory; or let our countrymen prefer, in this sort of knowledge, the decemviri who wrote the Twelve Tables, and who must have been wise men, to Servius Galba, and your father-in-law Laelius, who are allowed to have excelled in the glorious art of speaking. [32] Or what, moreover, is so kingly, so liberal, so munificent, as to give assistance to the suppliant, to raise the afflicted, to bestow security, to deliver from dangers, to maintain men in the rights of citizenship? Not that I despise the instructions which the Greek rhetoricians and teachers have left as, but, as they are already public, and within the reach of all, and can neither be set forth more elegantly, nor explained more clearly by my interpretation, you will, I think, excuse me, my brother, if I prefer to the Greeks the authority of those to whom the utmost merit in eloquence has been allowed by our own countrymen. (10)   P. 229. {6.} Yet in that pursuit so many men have arrived at excellence, that not one seems to have applied himself to the science in earnest without attaining in it whatever he desired. Retrouvez de Oratore, Volume 1... et des millions de livres en stock sur Amazon.fr. For who can suppose that, amid the greatest multitude of students, the utmost abundance of masters, the most eminent geniuses among men, the infinite variety of cases, the most ample rewards offered to eloquence, there is any other reason to be found for the small number of orators than the incredible magnitude and difficulty of the art? The eloquence of those men whom you mentioned a little before, seems to me to be of a quite different sort, though they speak with grace and dignity, as well on the nature of things as on human life. Or what is so pleasant to be heard and understood as an oration adorned and polished with wise thoughts and weighty expressions? Click on the L symbols to go to the Latin text of each section. Enter a Perseus citation to go to another section or work. Od. (31)   The Stoics called eloquence one of their virtues, See Quintilian, ii. DISCOURS DE CICÉRON AU PEUPLE, après son retour. [57] But when I have given them liberty to reason on all these subjects in corners to amuse their leisure, I shall give and assign to the orator his part, which is, to set forth with full power and attraction the very same topics which they discuss in such tame and bloodless phraseology. Cicéron . 5; Gronov. Quae vitae pars. {8.} 44; Orat. ARGUMENT. ORATEUR 1 ORATEUR 3 . and of placing the wisdom of our own fellow-country-men above that of the Greeks in all departments; while Antonius held that his speeches would be the more acceptable to a nation like ours, if it were thought that be had never engaged in study at all. Ellendt. [78] Here Crassus responded: "Remember that I have not been speaking of my own talents, but of those of the true orator. [24] L   At the time, then, when the consul Philippus was vehemently inveighing against the cause of the nobility, and the tribuneship of Drusus, undertaken to support the authority of the senate, seemed to be shaken and weakened, I was told, I remember, that Lucius Crassus, as if for the purpose of collecting his thoughts, betook himself, during the days of the Ludi Romani, to his Tusculan country-seat, whither also Quintus Mucius, who had been his father-in-law, is said to have come at the same time, as well as Marcus Antonius, a sharer in all the political enterprises of Crassus, and united in the closest friendship with him. for there can be no true merit in speaking, unless what is said is thoroughly understood by him who says it. Cicéron. (33)   Quasi dedita opera. There, (as Cotta used to relate,) in order that the minds of them all might have some relaxation from their former discourse, Crassus introduced a conversation on the study of oratory. Advers. There were then, as there are also now, the highest inducements offered for the cultivation of this study, in regard to public favour, wealth, and dignity. Hide browse bar But Charmadas was very much in the wrong; for Gorgias, Isocrates, Protagoras, Theophrastus, and other teachers of rhetoric were eminent for eloquence. . 15. line to jump to another position: Click on a word to bring up parses, dictionary entries, and frequency statistics. Cotta repeated to me many things then prophetically lamented and noticed by the three men of consular dignity in that conversation; so that no misfortune afterwards happened to the state which they had not perceived to be hanging over it so long before; [27] and he said that, when this conversation was finished, there was such politeness shown by Crassus, that after they had bathed and sat down to table, all the seriousness of the former discourse was banished; and there appeared so much pleasantry in him, and so much agreeableness in his humour that though the early part of the day might seem to have been passed by them in the senate-house, the banquet showed all the delights of the Tusculan villa. [70] For the poet is nearly allied to the orator; being somewhat more restricted in numbers, but less restrained in the choice of words, yet in many kinds of embellishment his rival and almost equal; in one respect, assuredly, nearly the same, that he circumscribes or bounds his realm by no limits, but reserves to himself full right to range wherever he pleases with the same ease and liberty. 5. Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 United States License. {11.} Le cas de Cicéron est typique de l'ambiguïté de l'attitude romaine face à l'art grec; A partir de De Oratore, il considère de la même façon que pour la rhétorique, c'est l'assimilation de l'art grec dans l'art romain. (15)   An edict of the praetor forbidding something to be done, in contradistinction to a decree, which ordered something to be done. (20)   De iure civili generatim in ordines aetatesque descripto. [74] L   Then Scaevola, smiling, said: "I will not struggle with you any longer, Crassus; for you have, by some artifice, made good what you asserted against me, so as to grant me whatever I refused to allow to the orator, and yet so as to wrest from me those very things again I know not how, and to transfer them to the orator as his property.

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